➡️ A synopsis is important even if you’re self-publishing. Your synopsis allows you to see problems with your plot and characters - so you can fix them in your novel before it hits the market.
➡️ A book synopsis should be between 500 and 800 words. This works out at approximately 1 single-spaced page in a standard 12pt font.
➡️ Your synopsis should include 5 key elements. This includes the premise, a main plot and subplot overview, your main characters, and an implicit outline of the appeal of your book.
Writing a book synopsis is notoriously tricky for authors. Synopsis writing is generally much drier and less creative than novel writing - and it’s never going to be easy to condense a 90,000 word novel into 500 words. That’s why it’s important to understand how to write a book synopsis that’s concise, compelling, and follows convention.
Nearly all editors, agents, and publishers request a synopsis for your book when you submit your work to them. Self-published authors can also benefit from writing a novel synopsis - it helps you spot plot holes, structural issues, and undeveloped characters, and will also help you identify the key selling points of your book for your marketing campaign.
Use this guide to writing a book synopsis to help you plan, structure, and write a great book summary.
A book synopsis is essentially a summary of your novel from start to finish. It includes an outline of the main plot, your primary characters, any subplots and plot twists, and what happens at the end.
Many new authors balk at giving away their carefully crafted ending, but there’s no need to worry - your book synopsis isn’t going to be published. After all, it’s not exactly in agents’ or publishers’ interests to spoil the ending of a book for readers. Instead, they’ll read your synopsis to help decide whether they think your book will sell - and whether to represent you as an author.
For authors pursuing traditional publishing, the purpose of your book synopsis is to sell your novel to an agent or publisher. Before they request your full manuscript, they want to know exactly what happens in your book - which is where your novel synopsis comes in.
If you’re planning on self-publishing your book, your synopsis is a tool for laying out the saleability and structure of your novel. By writing a synopsis, you can see which plot points are unwieldy, and which characters are underdeveloped - meaning you can fix these things in your novel before it hits the market. Attending writer's conferences could also be another way to improve your skills and learn how to write a compelling synopsis.
There’s a lot of literary jargon around book summaries, which can make it difficult to pinpoint exactly what you need to write in your synopsis. Here’s a rundown of the different types of book summary, and what each one should include:
Each of these is a different type of plot summary, with a different function in the publication of your book.
It’s generally agreed that a book synopsis should be between 500 and 800 words. This works out at approximately 1 single-spaced page in a standard 12pt font.
Many agents will have specific guidelines that you need to follow in terms of synopsis word count, so make sure you tailor your submission for each agent. This could mean you need a synopsis that’s 500 words, and one that’s 700 words. The extra work will pay off - you’re way more likely to get a response from an agent if you’ve read and met their submission requirements.
There are 5 key elements that every book synopsis should include:
Your book’s premise often comprises your overarching theme, setting, and conflict, forming a great hook that’s sure to keep readers engaged.
Go back to basics here. Ensure you’ve shown that your plot has all the key story elements in your novel synopsis, including an inciting incident, a climax, and a satisfying ending.
Make the reader care about the characters they’ll follow through your book by offering compelling character motivations.
Your subplots probably converge with the main plot at some point, so it makes sense to include them in your book synopsis.
Synopses are notoriously dry - but if you care about your story, this should shine through in your book summary. Show the reader why others will care about your book, too.
Your book synopsis should be written in the present tense and the third person - even if your book isn’t. This automatically helps you write your synopsis in an appropriate, professional tone, without hyperbole or bias.
As well as using a standard tense and perspective, most synopses follow a similar format. Here’s how you should structure your novel synopsis.
The premise is similar to your elevator pitch - the key piece of intrigue that makes the reader want to find out more. This opening line from the synopsis of Michelle Zink’s Prophecy Of The Sisters includes a fascinating hook:
Sixteen-year-old Lia Milthorpe’s life is in danger from the person she loves most – her twin sister.
Zink manages to introduce the main characters, a sense of peril, and a key area of conflict in a single line. It’s a great way to open the synopsis.
Don’t dilly-dally - when you’ve set the premise, follow it up by diving straight into the plot of your book. This will form the bulk of your word count. You can find out how to write an expert plot summary below. In the meantime, take a look at this extract from J.K. Rowling’s synopsis for Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone.
Harry Potter lives with his aunt, uncle and cousin because his parents died in a car-crash - or so he has always been told. The Dursleys don’t like Harry asking questions; in fact, they don’t seem to like anything about him, especially the very odd things that keep happening around him (which Harry himself can’t explain).
The Dursleys’ greatest fear is that Harry will discover the truth about himself, so when letters start arriving for him near his eleventh birthday, he isn’t allowed to read them. However, the Dursleys aren’t dealing with an ordinary postman, and at midnight on Harry’s birthday the gigantic Rubeus Hagrid breaks down the door to make sure Harry gets to read his post at last.
Rowling splits her paragraphs into plot points. The first paragraph outlines the status quo - Harry’s unhappy home life - while the second goes on to state the inciting incident: Harry’s invitation to attend Hogwarts. Structuring your synopsis in this way is a great tactic for ensuring you don’t stray too far from the main arc of your story.
Spell out exactly what happens at the end of your book - your synopsis is no place for a cliffhanger. If you’ve chosen to leave your book open-ended, make sure this is reflected in your synopsis.
Here’s an example of a synopsis ending for Cinderella, written by literary agent Janet Reid.
The heartbroken prince travels the kingdom to determine which lady fits the glass slipper. Her stepmother locks Cinderella in the attic but her mouse friends help her escape. The glass slipper fits her, and Cinderella and the prince live happily ever after.
Reid largely removes the sense of anguish, fear, and ultimate relief that comes with the climax and resolution of Cinderella. Synopses are often deadpan and unemotive, so don’t be afraid to be forthright about the ending of your story.
It’s time to get writing. Follow these steps on how to write a book synopsis to write a succinct, professional summary of your novel.
If you started your book with an outline, this will come in handy here. Using the following prompts, write one sentence for each of these points in your book:
Some writers swear by marking the timeline of the story or mapping out the events to help them stay on track. Try to keep your word count below 300 words. This gives you leeway to fill in any extra detail later.
You’ve probably introduced all the characters you need to include in your synopsis in the 5 sentences you just wrote. That said, you may not have given enough detail about their motives or personalities to make your story sing.
Note down any crucial character points you need to include in your synopsis, but be frugal with the detail. Extraneous backstories are a waste of words in your synopsis, so be careful not to let your personal connection with your characters get the better of you here. You should only include information that’s relevant to the plot.
Now you have a strong idea of the key plot points and character motivations you need to include, it’s time to craft the synopsis.
Build up your outline into a synopsis by filling in the gaps that will help the reader make the leap from one plot point to the next. If your story is solid, it will more or less tell itself at this stage - your job is to make it sound compelling. Don’t worry if your first draft is too long or a little messy.
You wouldn’t submit your first draft of your novel to an agent - so you shouldn’t submit your synopsis first draft, either. Let it sit for a few days so you can get some distance from your work. When you come back to it, read it with a critical eye. Check it explores each of the elements in the section on what to include in your synopsis above. Perhaps most importantly, check it meets the word count and formatting requirements set by the agent.
Now you know how to write a book synopsis, you can start submitting your synopsis and query letter to agents. Before you hit send, double check the requirements from each agent to check you’re sending them what they want to see. You’re sure to increase your response rates - and maybe even receive a couple of manuscript requests. While you're at it, you should also start thinking about your author bio too!
Alternatively, if you’re thinking of self-publishing, check out our advice for self-published authors. You’ll find tons of useful guides for writing and marketing your new novel.
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